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history of philosophy timeline

Life: Miletus, 626 BC - 548 BC Idea studied: “Nous” ordering all things, Life: Elis, late 5th century BC The years following the Medieval age, known as a "rebirth" of many of the cultural influences of the Hellenistic age. Mill refined the theory to stress the quality not just the quantity of happiness, and intellectual and moral pleasures over more physical forms. Roger Bacon was something of an exception, and actually criticized the prevailing Scholastic system, based as it was on tradition and scriptural authority. Philosophy period: Contemporary Philosophy In the early 20th Century, the British logicians Bertrand Russell and Alfred North Whitehead continued to champion his ideas (even after Russell had pointed out a paradox exposing an inconsistency in Frege's work, which caused him, Frege, to abandon his own theory). For more details on dates and historical eras and periods, see the section By Historical Period. Philosophical current: Sophist, Life: Athens, 470 BC - 399 BC Philosophy period: Contemporary Philosophy He believed that we always have choices (and therefore freedom) and that, while this freedom is empowering, it also brings with it moral responsibility and an existential dread (or "angst"). Empedocles determines that there must be more than one (four) root elements. He pointed out that the term "good", for instance, is in fact indefinable because it lacks natural properties in the way that the terms "blue", "smooth", etc, have them. According to Leibniz's theory, the real world is actually composed of eternal, non-material and mutually-independent elements he called monads, and the material world that we see and touch is actually just phenomena (appearances or by-products of the underlying real world). Philosophical current: Existentialism, Phenomenology, Humanism Marxism Philosophical current: Realism, Causality, Empiricism, Life: Somerset (England), 29 August 1632 - Essex (England), 28 October 1704 Comte saw this as the final phase in the evolution of humanity, and even constructed a non-theistic, pseudo-mystical "positive religion" around the idea. Philosophical current: Sophist, Life: Athens - 424 BC - 348 BC Main theme: Ethics, Political Philosophy In his Political Philosophy, Hume stressed the importance of moderation, and his work contains elements of both Conservatism and Liberalism. Of the Milesian school. Philosophy period: Renaissance Philosophy Aristotle's system of deductive Logic, with its emphasis on the syllogism (where a conclusion, or synthesis, is inferred from two other premises, the thesis and antithesis), remained the dominant form of Logic until the 19th Century. The French sociologist and philosopher Auguste Comte founded the influential Positivism movement around the belief that the only authentic knowledge was scientific knowledge, based on actual sense experience and strict application of the scientific method. Heraclitus… Main theme: Metaphysics Indeed, Wittgenstein has come to be considered one of the 20th Century's most important philosophers, if not the most important. Although sometimes criticized for his lax standards of scholarship, Foucault's ideas are nevertheless frequently cited in a wide variety of different disciplines. Johann Fichte, for example, rejected Kant's separation of "things in themselves" and things "as they appear to us" (which he saw as an invitation to Skepticism), although he did accept that consciousness of the self depends on the existence of something that is not part of the self (his famous "I / not-I" distinction). Philosophical current: Skepticism, Life: Cordoba, c. 4 BC - Rome - 12 April 65 But his analysis of the way in which human freedom tends to lead to "angst" (dread), the call of the infinite, and eventually to despair, was highly influential on later Existentialists like Heidegger and Sartre. Philosophical current: Pre-Socratic Philosophy In the 1930s, A. J. Ayer was largely responsible for the spread of Logical Positivism to Britain, even as its influence was already waning in Europe. Life: c. 494 BC - c. 434 BC Philosophy period: Ancient Philosophy Main theme: Metaphysics, Epistemology, Ontology, Cosmology Philosophical current: Pre-Socratic Philosophy Idea studied: “All matter is made up of four elements”, the cosmic principles of Love and Repulsion However, our senses can only tell us about the appearance of a thing (phenomenon) and not the "thing-in-itself" (noumenon), which Kant believed was essentially unknowable, although we have certain innate predispositions as to what exists (Transcendental Idealism). Another important 17th Century French Rationalist (although perhaps of the second order) was Nicolas Malebranche, who was a follower of Descartes in that he believed that humans attain knowledge through ideas or immaterial representations in the mind.

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