Indeed, Mazzino Montinari, the editor of Nietzsche's Nachlass, called it a forgery.. Köhler argues that Nietzsche's syphilis, which is "... usually considered to be the product of his encounter with a prostitute in a brothel in Cologne or Leipzig, is equally likely.  He notes that whenever Apollonian culture dominates, the Dionysian lacks the structure to make a coherent art, and when Dionysian dominates, the Apollonian lacks the necessary passion.  However, there are also those who stress that, if Nietzsche preferred men—with this preference constituting his psycho-sexual make-up—but could not admit his desires to himself, it meant he acted in conflict with his philosophy. Nehamas shows that this interpretation exists totally independently of physics and does not presuppose the truth of cosmology. Marburg: Tectum Verlag 2013. ProductUpdates always strives to keep the latest information. After contracting pneumonia in mid-August 1900, he had another stroke during the night of 24–25 August and died at about noon on 25 August. "Nietzsche's Vorfahren" (reprint). Auden who wrote of Nietzsche in his New Year Letter (released in 1941 in The Double Man): "O masterly debunker of our liberal fallacies ... all your life you stormed, like your English forerunner Blake. The Interior Life of Friedrich Nietzsche", "Who knew? That year he also met Lou Andreas-Salomé, through Malwida von Meysenbug and Paul Rée.  Consequently, he turned his attention to his studies again, completing them in 1868. His books remained largely unsold. At least toward the end of his life, Nietzsche believed his ancestors were Polish. Heidegger interpreted the death of God with what he explained as the death of metaphysics. Pérez, Rolando. $8.49 #29. After one semester (and to the anger of his mother), he stopped his theological studies and lost his faith.  Bertrand Russell wrote that Nietzsche had exerted great influence on philosophers and on people of literary and artistic culture, but warned that the attempt to put Nietzsche's philosophy of aristocracy into practice could only be done by an organization similar to the Fascist or the Nazi party. His health improved and he spent the summer in high spirits. Modern Europe and Christianity exist in a hypocritical state due to a tension between master and slave morality, both contradictory values determining, to varying degrees, the values of most Europeans (who are "motley"). He went on to list the number of people Epicurus, for example, had to rely on to supply his simple diet of goat cheese..  Critics have suggested that the character of David Grief in A Son of the Sun was based on Nietzsche.  Nigel Rodgers and Mel Thompson have argued that continuous sickness and headaches hindered Nietzsche from engaging much with women. Socrates emphasized reason to such a degree that he diffused the value of myth and suffering to human knowledge. This guide includes the best philosophy books from throughout history. The three traveled with Salomé's mother through Italy and considered where they would set up their "Winterplan" commune.  Wallace Stevens was another reader of Nietzsche, and elements of Nietzsche's philosophy were found throughout Stevens's poetry collection Harmonium. I teach you the overman. She edited his unpublished writings to fit her German nationalist ideology while often contradicting or obfuscating Nietzsche's stated opinions, which were explicitly opposed to antisemitism and nationalism.  Nietzsche early learned of Darwinism through Friedrich Albert Lange. Nietzsche called for exceptional people not to be ashamed in the face of a supposed morality-for-all, which he deems to be harmful to the flourishing of exceptional people.  To be "good" was to be happy and to have the things related to happiness: wealth, strength, health, power, etc. During these years Nietzsche met Meta von Salis, Carl Spitteler, and Gottfried Keller. Through her published editions, Nietzsche's work became associated with fascism and Nazism; 20th-century scholars contested this interpretation of his work and corrected editions of his writings were soon made available.  Prominent elements of his philosophy include his radical critique of truth in favor of perspectivism; a genealogical critique of religion and Christian morality and related theory of master–slave morality;[i] the aesthetic affirmation of existence in response to the "death of God" and the profound crisis of nihilism; the notion of Apollonian and Dionysian forces; and a characterization of the human subject as the expression of competing wills, collectively understood as the will to power.  It is also known that Nietzsche frequented heterosexual brothels.  In June 1865, at the age of 20, Nietzsche wrote to his sister Elisabeth, who was deeply religious, a letter regarding his loss of faith. Nietzsche remarked freely about the isolation he felt within the philological community and attempted unsuccessfully to transfer to a position in philosophy at Basel. He believed the press and mass culture led to conformity, brought about mediocrity, and the lack of intellectual progress was leading to the decline of the human species. In 1882, Nietzsche published the first part of The Gay Science. However, his colleagues within his field, including Ritschl, expressed little enthusiasm for the work in which Nietzsche eschewed the classical philologic method in favor of a more speculative approach. ", Nietzsche, Friedrich. Max Weber and Martin Heidegger absorbed it and made it their own. , W.B. The idea that one value-system is no more worthy than the next, although it may not be directly ascribed to Nietzsche, has become a common premise in modern social science. In constructing a world where objective knowledge is possible, Christianity is an antidote to a primal form of nihilism—the despair of meaninglessness.  He wrote that Jews should be thanked for helping uphold a respect for the philosophies of ancient Greece, and for giving rise to "the noblest human being (Christ), the purest philosopher (Baruch Spinoza), the mightiest book, and the most effective moral code in the world. " Nietzsche waged a philosophic war against the slave morality of Christianity in his "revaluation of all values" in order to bring about the victory of a new master morality that he called the "philosophy of the future" (Beyond Good and Evil is subtitled Prelude to a Philosophy of the Future).. By 1882, Nietzsche was taking huge doses of opium, but he was still having trouble sleeping. Exceptional people, on the other hand, should follow their own "inner law". Elaborating on the conception of Hamlet as an intellectual who cannot make up his mind, and is a living antithesis to the man of action, Nietzsche argues that a Dionysian figure possesses the knowledge that his actions cannot change the eternal balance of things, and it disgusts him enough not to act at all. " He then printed Beyond Good and Evil at his own expense. 1941. According to this view, our existence (action, suffering, willing, feeling) has no meaning: this 'in vain' is the nihilists' pathos—an inconsistency on the part of the nihilists. The Wagners brought Nietzsche into their most intimate circle—including Franz Liszt, of whom Nietzsche colloquially described: "Liszt or the art of running after women! "Nietzsche's Aesthetic Solution to the Problem of Epigonism in the Nineteenth Century." German conductor and pianist Hans von Bülow also described another of Nietzsche's pieces as "the most undelightful and the most antimusical draft on musical paper that I have faced in a long time. Huskinson, Lucy. , In 1898 and 1899, Nietzsche suffered at least two strokes. " Nietzsche scholar Joachim Köhler [de] has attempted to explain Nietzsche's life history and philosophy by claiming that he was homosexual. I have had Caiaphas put in fetters. [June 1868] 1921. The last man is possible only by mankind's having bred an apathetic creature who has no great passion or commitment, who is unable to dream, who merely earns his living and keeps warm. A man in this state transforms things until they mirror his power—until they are reflections of his perfection.  On the other hand, it is clear from his own writings that Nietzsche hoped for the victory of master morality.  As early as his 1862 essay "Fate and History", Nietzsche had argued that historical research had discredited the central teachings of Christianity, but David Strauss's Life of Jesus also seems to have had a profound effect on the young man. Construction Site on Christmas Night: (Christmas Book for Kids, Children’s Book, Holiday Picture Book) Sherri Duskey Rinker. Pp. "Nietzsche's Quarrel With Euripides". He owed the awakening of his philosophical interest to reading Schopenhauer's The World as Will and Representation and later admitted that Schopenhauer was one of the few thinkers whom he respected, dedicating the essay "Schopenhauer as Educator" in the Untimely Meditations to him. To his former colleague Burckhardt, Nietzsche wrote:. During the late 19th century Nietzsche's ideas were commonly associated with anarchist movements and appear to have had influence within them, particularly in France and the United States.
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